Horse/Equine Dictionary
Terminology of the Horse/Equine Industry


Printable Version

ADF
See acid detergent fiber.
ADG
See average daily gain.
ADIN
Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen. Undigestible dietary protein or nitrogen.
Abortion
Premature expulsion of the fetus or unborn animal.
Acid detergent fiber
Fiber measurement extracted with acidic detergent in a technique employed to help appraise the quality of forages. Includes cellulose, lignin, ADIN, and acid-insoluble ash.
Ad libitum (ad lib.)
At pleasure. Commonly used to express feed available on free-choice basis.
Aerobic
Requiring oxygen. For example, many microorganisms require oxygen for the oxidation of food materials.
Afterbirth
The placenta and allied membranes with which the fetus is connected with the mother. It is expelled from the uterus following parturition.
Aged
A horse which is seven years old or older.
AI Daughter
Female offspring of an artificially inseminated dam.
Aids
Whips, reins, spurs, and other items which help a rider convey instructions to the horse.
Air Above the Ground
Any movement performed with either the forelegs or the fore and hind legs off the ground.
Alopecia
Baldness; loss or deficiency of hair, natural or abnormal.
Also-Ran
Any unplaced horse in a race.
Ammonia
A colorless pungent gas, NH3, composed of nitrogen and hydrogen; its compounds are used as fertilizers.
Ammonium
An ion (NH4+) derived from ammonia (NH3).
Anaerobic treatment lagoon
A structure to treat animal waste by predominantly anaerobic biological action using anaerobic or facultative organisms, in the absence of air, for the purpose of reducing organic matter in wastes.
Anaphylactic shock (anaphylaxis)
A state of immediate hypersensitivity following sensitization to a foreign protein or drug.
Anorexia
Lack or loss of appetite.
Anthelmintic
A remedy for destruction or elimination of parasitic worms.
Antibiotic
A metabolic product of one microorganism or a chemical that in low concentrations is detrimental to activities of other microorganisms. Penicillin, tetracycline, and streptomycin are antibiotics. Not effective against viruses.
Antibody
A protein (modified type of blood serum) developed or synthesized by lymphoid tissue of the body in response to an antigen. Each antigen elicits production of a specific antibody.
Antigen
A high-molecular-weight substance (usually protein) which, when foreign to the bloodstream of an animal, stimulates formation of a specific antibody.
Apprentice
A youth who is being trained as a jockey.
Artificial insemination
Placement of fresh or frozen male semen into the female mechanically without normal sexual contact.
Aseptic
Preventing or free from contamination by microorganisms.
As fed
Refers to feed as it is consumed by an animal, including moisture.
Atrophy
A defect or failure of nutrition or physiologic function manifested as a wasting away or reduction in the size of cell, tissue, organ, or body part.
Average daily gain
The average amount of daily live weight increase as applied to farm animals.
Backstretch
Part of an oval racetrack furthest from the spectators.
Bactericide
An agent or substance capable of destroying bacteria.
Bacterin
A suspension of killed or attenuated bacteria (vaccine) used to increase disease resistance.
Bacteriostatic
Describes a substance that prevents the growth of bacteria but does not kill them.
Bag
See udder.
Balanced ration
The daily food allowance of an animal, mixed to include suitable proportions of nutrients required for normal health, growth, production, and well-being. A ration containing all the dietary requirements to meet the purpose for which it is being fed.
Baled hay
Forage that has been compressed into a bale (round or rectangular) to save space in storage and aid in handling.
Band
A group of horses.
Bareback
Riding a horse without a saddle or blanket on its back.
Barren
Sterile, infertile, nonbreeder, incapable, of producing offspring. Also, open or not pregnant.
Basal metabolism (BM)
The chemical changes that occur in the cells of an animal in the fasting or resting state when it uses just enough energy to maintain vital cellular activity, respiration, and circulation as measured by the basal metabolic rate (BMR).
Bit
The part of the bridle that fits in the horse's mouth.
Blemish
Any scar left by an injury.
Blind quarter
A quarter of an udder that does not secrete milk or one that has an obstruction in the teat which prevents the removal of milk. A nonfunctional mammary gland.
Blistering (or Firing)
The application of a hot iron to a horse's lower leg in an attempt to treat an unsoundness problem. The procedure is not well accepted in the industry because it is considered cruel and its effectiveness has not been proven.
Blood plasma
The liquid portion of blood in which the corpuscles of blood cells are suspended.
Bloodstock
Thoroughbred horses, especially those used for racing and breeding.
Blow Up
1) to buck. 2) a term used to describe the behavior of a dressage or show horse which performs poorly.
BOD (biochemical oxygen demand)
An indirect measure of the concentration of biodegradable substances in an aqueous solution. The degradation of organic matter uses up dissolved oxygen.
Bone meal
Animal bones that were steamed under pressure and then ground. It contains 1.5 to 2.5 percent nitrogen, 12 to 15 percent phosphorus, and 20 to 34 percent calcium. It is used as a fertilizer and as a mineral supplement for feeding farm animals.
Book
An individual who accepts bets on horses.
Bran
The seed coat of wheat and other cereal grains which is separated from flour and used as animal food.
Break Down
The back of the fetlock dropping to the ground, caused by a lacerated suspensory ligament or a fractured sesamoid bone.
Breed
Animals having a common origin and characteristics that distinguish them from other groups within the same species.
Breeder
The owner of a mare at the time of breeding.
Breeding value (genetic value)
The genetic ability or merit of an animal for a given trait, for example, speed. One-half of this genetic ability is transmitted to offspring.
Breeze
1) to win a race easily. 2) a training sprint over a short distance.
Bridle
The headgear used to control the horse.
Broad-spectrum antibiotic
An antibiotic that is active against a large number of microbial species.
Bronc (or Bronco)
Any unbroken horse.
By
Sired by.
CF
See crude fiber.
CP
See crude protein and intake protein.
Carrying capacity
The number of animals that a pasture can properly carry with feed for a certain period of time.
Cavaletti
A series of small wooden jumps used in training to improve a horse's strength, stride, and balance.
Cavesson
A type of noseband used to keep the horse's mouth closed.
Check-offs
The practice of deducting a portion of the payment to a farmer for his or her produce.
Cholesterol
A white, fat-soluble substance found in animal fats and oils, in bile, blood, brain tissue, nervous tissue, the liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands. It is important in metabolism and is a precursor of certain hormones.
Chute
Straight part of a racetrack behind the barrier of the starting gate.
Classification
An appraisal program offered by a breed association to evaluate each animal's resemblance to the breed's ideal.
A numerical score is assigned to each animal.
Clear Round
A show-jumping or cross-country round which is completed without faults.
Close breeding
A form of inbreeding, such as mating brothers to sisters, sire to daughter, and son to dam.
COD (chemical oxygen demand)
An indirect measure of the biochemical load exerted on the oxygen of a body of water when organic wastes are introduced into the water. If wastes are readily biodegradable, COD and BOD are nearly the same.
Cold-Blood
Any large, heavy horse whose ancestors originated in the cold regions of the world; particularly the draft breeds.
Coliform bacteria
Bacteria from the intestinal tract of warm- blooded animals. Presence is considered indicative of fecal contamination.
Collection
Shortening a horse's pace by light contact from the rider's hands and steady pressure from the legs, which make the horse flex its neck, relax its jaw, and bring its hocks under.
Colt
an ungelded male horse less than four years old.
Compaction
Closely packed feed in the stomach and intestines of an animal causing constipation and/or digestive
disturbances.
Complete ration
A blend of all feedstuffs (forages and grains) in one feed. A complete ration fits well into mechanized feeding and the use of computers to formulate least-cost rations. Sometimes called total mixed ration or TMR.
Concentrate
A feed high in nitrogen-free-extract (NFE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) and low in crude fiber (less than 18 percent). Included are cereal grains, soybean oil meal, cottonseed meal, and by-products of the milling industry such as corn gluten and wheat bran. A concentrate may be low or rich in protein.
Conception
Fertilization or penetration of the ovum by a sperm cell.
Conception rate
Total number of conceptions obtained divided by total number of services.
Condition
Refers to the amount of flesh (body weight), quality of hair coat, and general health of animals. Also called body condition.
Confidence range (CR)
Indicates the accuracy in the estimation of a sire's genetic merit in a sire proof by giving a probable range for future summaries.
Confinement
Livestock kept in corrals or housing for maximum year-round production. Facilities may be partial or complete, usually with a solid floor and enclosed, or covered.
Conformation
The body form or physical traits of an animal; its shape and arrangement of parts.
Conjunctiva
The tissue covering the anterior portion of an eyeball.
Contact
The connection between the rider's hands and the horse's mouth made through the reins.
Cooperative
A form of business owned and controlled by the people who use its services, such as a livestock marketing or
processing cooperative.
Cooperative Extension Service (CES)
The state, university and county educational outreach service of each state land-grant institution. This service
extends the research results and educational programs of land-grant institutions to all the people in the state.
Corn
A bruise in the area of the sole between the heel and the wall of the hoof.
Course
1) a racecourse. 2) in show-jumping and cross-country competition, a circuit including a series of obstacles which are jumped in a designated order, sometimes within a specified time limit.
Crimped
Rolled with corrugated rollers. The grain to which this term refers may be tempered or conditioned before crimping, and may be cooled afterward.
Crossbred
Offspring of parents of different breeds.
Crossbreeding
Mating animals of different breeds.
Crude fiber (CF)
That portion of feedstuffs composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and other polysaccharides which serve as structural and protective parts of plants (high in forages and low in grains). Not soluble in acid or alkali detergents.
Crude protein (CP)
Total protein in a feed. To calculate the protein percentage, a feed is first chemically analyzed for nitrogen content. Because proteins average about 16 percent (100 ö 6.25) nitrogen, the percentage of nitrogen in the analysis is multiplied by 6.25 to give the CP percentage.
Cut
To geld (castrate) a colt or stallion.
DIP
Degradable intake protein. That protein or nitrogen degraded in the rumen by micoorganisms into microbial protein or freed as ammonia.
DM
See dry matter.
DMI
Dry matter intake.
DNA
See deoxyribonucleic acid.
Dam
The mother of a foal.
Dark Horse
A horse whose racing record is relatively unknown.
Dead Heat
In racing, a tie for first, second, or third place.
Degraded intake protein
See DIP.
Denitrification
The chemical or biological reduction of nitrate or nitrite to gaseous nitrogen, either as molecular nitrogen (N2) or as an oxide of nitrogen (N2O).
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The chemical substance that is the principal nuclear material of cells. The structure of DNA determines the structure of ribonucleic acid which, in turn, determines the structure of proteins of the cell.
Dicoumarol
A chemical compound found in spoiled sweet clover and lespedeza hays. It is an anticoagulant and can cause internal hemorrhages when ingested by cattle.
Digestible energy (DE)
The amount of energy actually digested by the horse (that is, the amount consumed by the horse but not excreted
in the feces). Digestible energy is broken down in the digestive tract, absorbed into the bloodstream, and carried
throughout the body.
Digestible protein (DP)
The amount of protein of feed that is absorbed by the digestive tract; it may be computed using the formula: Percent DP = percent crude protein of feed x digestion coefficient for protein in the feed.
Digestibility
That percentage of food ingested which is absorbed into the body as opposed to that which is excreted as feces.
Digestion coefficient
The digestion coefficient of feed ingredients (DCFI) may be calculated using the formula:
Wt. of ingredient consumed -- Wt. of undigested ingredient in feces
DCFI = Wt. of ingredient consumed X 100
Diuretic
A drug or agent used to increase flow of urine.
Docking
Removing the tail for sanitation purposes.
Dominant
Describes a gene that covers up the physical expression of its paired allele or recessive gene.
Dope
To drug a horse, either to improve or impair its performance in a competitive event.
Draft Horse
A horse used to pull heavy loads.
Dry matter (DM)
The moisture-free content of feeds.
Dyspnea
Difficult or labored respiration.
Dystocia
Abnormal or difficult labor (parturition), causing difficulty in delivering the fetus and placenta.
Earthen storage basin
An earthen pond or basin for storing animal waste. Differs from an anaerobic treatment lagoon in that wastes are not stored for an extended period and microbial breakdown or treatment does not occur.
Eclipse Award
An award for outstanding achievement in the Thoroughbred business, equivalent to the motion picture industry's Academy Award.
Edema
The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body, as in swelling of mammary glands commonly accompanying parturition in many farm animals.
Efficacy
Effectiveness.
Effluent
The liquid outflow or discharge of a waste treatment process.
ELUD
See extra label use drug.
Emaciation
A wasted condition of the body; great losses of body weight or condition.
Embryo transfer
Modern technology whereby multiple fertilized eggs (ova) are flushed from the donor's uterus, and are transferred to a recipient animal that serves as a surrogate mother. The fertilized ova may be frozen and stored indefinitely before they are thawed and transferred to recipients.
Ensilage
A green chop (forage) preserved by fermentation in a silo, pit, or stack, usually in chopped form. Also called silage.
Enteritis
Intestinal inflammation caused by bacteria, poison or moldy feed which contains fungi.
Epidemic
The rapid spreading of a disease so that many animals or people have it concurrently. See epizootic.
Epizootic
Designating a widely diffused disease of animals spreading rapidly and affecting many individuals of a kind concurrently in any region, thus corresponding to an epidemic in man.
Equestrian
1) pertaining to horsemen or horsemanship.
2) a rider on horseback.
Equine
Pertaining to horses.
Equine Sports Medicine
The science of equine athletic conditioning and related factors. Still in its infancy, the science began by adapting human athletic conditioning principles to performance horses. It utilizes scientific technology in an attempt to improve the athletic performance of horses. Equine Sports Medicine includes the study of all areas which can impact performance, such as body function mechanisms (nutrition/digestion, cardiovascular and respiratory functions, bone density, blood composition, bone/muscle function, etc.), gait and motion analysis, and training/conditioning techniques. At this time, the science primarily impacts racing, but is expected to expand to other performance activities in the near future.
Ergosterol
A plant sterol which, when activated by ultraviolet rays, becomes vitamin D2, also called provitamin D2 and ergosterin.
Eructation
The act of belching or casting up gas from the stomach.
Estrus (oestrus, estrous)
The recurrent, restricted sexual receptivity (heat) in female mammals, commonly marked by intense sexual urge. Estrous pertains to the entire cycle of reproductive changes in the nonpregnant female animal.
Ether extract (EE)
Fatty substances or lipids of foods and feeds that are soluble in ether.
Event Horse
A horse which competes in the Three-Day Event.
Eventing
Synonym for the Three-Day Event.
Exacta (or Perfecta)
A type of bet in which the wagerer must choose the first and second place winners and the order in which they finish in order to win.
Exocrine (eccrine)
Secreting outwardly, into, or through a duct.
Extra label use drug
An antibiotic or other chemical used on the advice of a veterinarian in a dosage, route of administration, for a disease, or in some other manner not included on the approved printed package label.
FEI
The Federation Equestre International (International Equestrian Federation), the world's governing body of international equestrian sport. Founded in 1921, the F.E.I. is headquartered in Brussels. It makes the rules and regulations for international equestrian competitive events, including the Olympic Games, the Pan American Games, and the World Championships. All national equestrian federations are required to comply with the F.E.I.'s regulations in international competition.
False heat
The display of estrus by a female animal when she is pregnant.
Farrier
An individual who makes horseshoes and shoes horses.
Fault
In jumping, a scoring unit which penalizes a competitor for knockdowns, refusals, falls, touches (touching the obstacle) or other mistakes.
Feature Race
The main race of a race event.
Fecal coliform bacteria
See coliform bacteria.
Federation of cooperatives
An organization of cooperatives that provides for joint activities but allows each cooperative to manage its own affairs.
Fence
Any obstacle which must be jumped in hunting, show- jumping, cross-country, or steeplechase competition.
Fiber
The cellulose portion of roughages (forages) that is low in TDN and hard to digest by monogastric animals.
Filly
A female horse less than four years old.
Flushing
Putting mares on an increasing plane of nutrition prior to breeding to increase ovulation and fertility.
Foal
A male or female horse less than one year old.
Fodder
Coarse food for cattle or horses, such as corn stalks or straw.
Forehand
The part of the horse which is in front of the rider the head, neck, shoulders, withers, and forelegs.
Free-choice
A feeding system that allows animals to eat at will. See self-feeder.
Freeze drying
The evaporation of water from a frozen product with the aid of high vacuum. Also called lyophilization.
Frog
The elastic, horny center of the sole of a horse's hoof.
Furlong
1/8 of a mile or 220 yards.
GPD (gaseous products of digestion)
These include the combustible gases produced in the digestive tract during fermentation of the ration. Methane constitutes the major proportion of the combustible gases produced by ruminants; however, nonruminants also produce methane. Trace amounts of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, acetone, ethane, and hydrogen sulfide are also produced.
Gait
Any forward movement of the horse, such as walking or galloping.
Gall
A sore on the horse's skin, usually occurring under the saddle or qirth.
Gastroenteritis
Chemical, bacterial, or viral inflammation of the mucosa of the stomach and intestines.
Geld
To castrate a male horse.
Gelding
A male horse which has been castrated.
Genetic merit
The genetic value of the animal used in a breeding program. (Also see breeding value).
Genetic trend
Genetic change per year for a trait in the population.
Genotype
The actual genetic constitution (makeup) of an individual as determined by its germ plasm. See dominant.
Gestation Pregnancy.
The period between conception and foaling, normally about eleven months.
Get
The offspring of a sire.
Girth
1) the circumference of a horse measured around the deepest part of the body behind the withers. 2) a strap
around the horse's girth which holds the saddle in place.
Giving milk
Lactating, or the act of yielding milk by a mammal.
Going
The condition of a race track or other ground over which a horse travels, such as "good going", "muddy going", etc.
Goitrogenic
Producing or tending to produce goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland).
Gossypol
A toxic yellow pigment found in cottonseed. Heat and pressure tend to bind it with protein and thereby render it safe for animal consumption.
Graze
To consume standing vegetation, as by livestock or wild animals.
Green
1) a horse which is broken but not yet trained.
2) a trotter or pacer which has not been raced against the clock.
Green chop (fresh forage)
Forages harvested (cut and chopped) in the field and hauled to livestock. This minimizes the loss of moisture, color, nutrients, and wastage. Also called zero grazing or soilage.
Groom
1) an individual who is responsible for looking after a horse. 2) to clean the coat, mane, tail, and feet of a horse.
Gross energy (GE)
The amount of heat, measured in calories, released when a substance is completely oxidized in a bomb calorimeter. The total amount of energy provided in the horse's feed.
Growthy
Describes an animal that is large and well-developed for its age.
Hack
1) a riding horse for hire. 2) a pleasure ride.
Hackamore
A bridle that controls the horse by pressure on its nose.
Half-sib
In genetics, a half brother or half sister.
Hand
Measurement used to determine the height of a horse. A hand equals four inches, the average width of a man's hand. A horse's height is measured from the highest part of the withers to the ground. The abbreviation for height is h.h. (hands high). Fractions of a hand are expressed in inches. For example, a horse 15.2 hands high is 15 hands, 2 inches tall.
Hardware disease
Commonly, an inflammation of the body cavity by an animal eating metal objects and perforation of the digestive tract.
Haunches
The hips and buttocks of a horse.
Hay
Dried forage (e.g., grasses, alfalfa, clovers) used for feeding farm animals.
Haylage
Low-moisture silage (35 to 55 percent moisture). Grass and legume crops are cut and wilted in the field to a lower moisture level than normal for grass silage, but the crop is not sufficiently dry for baling. It is commonly stored in a sealed, or airtight, storage system.
Heart girth
The circumference of the body just back of the shoulders of an animal. It is used to estimate body weight.
Heat
See estrus.
Heat increment (HI)
The increase in heat produced following consumption of food. It consists of calories released in fermentation and nutrient metabolism. When environmental temperature is below critical temperature, this heat may be used to keep the body warm; therefore, it is not wasted. Also called work of digestion.
Heat period
That period of time when a female will accept a male in the act of mating. Also called in heat or estrus.
Hectare
A metric unit of land measurement (2.47 acres).
Herd
A group of animals, collectively considered as a unit.
Heritability
The proportion (fraction) of difference among animals for a trait due to genetic difference rather than environmental factors. The fraction of variation in a trait that is genetically transmissible from parent to offspring.
High-moisture silage
Silage usually containing 70 percent or more moisture.
Hindquarters
See Quarters.
Homestretch
Part of an oval track closest to the spectators.
Hot-Blood
Any light, fast horse whose ancestors originated in the hot, dry areas of the world; particularly the Arabian
breed.
Hypoglycemia
Below normal blood glucose level.
IP
See intake protein.
IU (international unit)
A unit of measurement of a biologic (e.g., a vitamin, hormone, antibiotic, antitoxin) as defined by the International Conference for Unification of Formulae. Potency is based on bioassay that produces a particular effect agreed on internationally. Also called USP unit.
Immunity
The power an animal has to resist and/or overcome an infection to which most of its species is susceptible. Active immunity is attributable to the presence of antibodies formed by an animal in response to antigenetic stimulus. Passive immunity is produced by the administration of preformed antibodies.
Impaction
Constipation. See compaction.
In Foal
In gestation.
Inbreeding
The mating of related horses, such as brother and sister or son and dam.
Intake protein (IP)
Total protein or nitrogen consumed without regard to quality.
In vitro
Within an artificial environment, as within a test tube.
In vivo
Within the living body.
Jockey
Professional rider of racehorses.
Jump-Off
In show jumping, a round held to decide the winner among those competitors who tied for first place in the previous round.
Jumper
Any horse trained to compete over jumps.
Kilocalorie (kcal)
Equivalent to 1000 calories.
Lachrymation
The act of tearing; secreting and conveying tears.
Lactate
To secrete or produce milk; also, salt of beta-hydroxy propionic acid.
Lagoon
see anaerobic treatment lagoon.
Leaching
The process of removal of soluble materials by the passage of water through soil.
Legume
Clovers, alfalfa, and similar crops that can absorb nitrogen directly from the atmosphere through action of bacteria that live in their roots and use it as a nutrient for growth.
Length
The length of a horse's head and body, used to measure the distance by which a horse wins a race.
Libido
Sexual desire or instinct.
Lignin
A compound which, with cellulose, forms the cell walls of plants. It is practically indigestible.
Lipid
Any one of a group of organic substances that are insoluble in water though soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, and other fat solvents, and have a greasy feel. They are rich sources of dietary energy.
Liquid-solid separation
The process of passing a liquid-solid suspension, such as animal manure, over a screen or similar device to partially remove solids prior to storage or application.
Long feed
Coarse or unchopped feed such as hay, as contrasted with short, or chopped, feed.
Loose housing
Facilities which allow livestock access to a large, open bedded area for resting. Also known as free housing. Loose housing provides at least 200 square feet per animal for feeding and resting while freestall housing uses only 90 square feet per animal.
Low-moisture silage
Silage that contains 35 to 55 percent moisture. See haylage.
Lucerne
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa); a legume of high feeding value for ruminants.
Lunge
A long line, usually fifteen to twenty feet long, used in training. One end of the lunge is attached to one side of the bridle; the trainer holds the other end in his hands as the horse circles him.
Maiden
A horse of either sex which has not won a race.
Maiden Mare
A mare which has not had a foal.
Manure
The fecal and urinary excretions of livestock.
Mare
A female horse more than four years old.
Martingale
An aid used to help keep a horse's head in the correct position. It usually includes a strap running between the forelegs which connects the girth and the front of the bridle.
Match
A race between two horses, on terms agreed by their owners.
Mastectomy
Removal of the mammary glands.
Mastitis
An inflammation of the mammary gland (or glands), usually caused by bacteria.
Meet
The place where hunters, horse, hounds, and followers gather before a hunt.
Megacalorie (Mcal)
Equivalent to 1000 kcal or 1,000,000 cal. A megacalorie is equivalent to a therm.
Metabolic weight
The weight of an animal raised to three- quarter power (W0.75).
Metabolizable energy (ME)
Food-intake gross energy minus fecal energy, energy in the gaseous products of digestion (mostly methane), and urinary energy.
Metritis
An inflammation of the uterus.
Monogastric
Having only one stomach or stomach compartment, as does man, dogs, and swine.
Mount
To climb onto, as demonstrated by females in heat and by males in natural service.
Muck Out
To remove manure and soiled bedding from a horse's stall.
Mudder
A horse which races well on a muddy track.
Mummified fetus
A shriveled fetus that has remained in the uterus instead of being aborted or expelled. Fluids from the fetus have been partially reabsorbed by the mother.
Mustang
Any wild horse; particularly, the wild horse of the western plains of the U.S., which is descended from Spanish horses.
NAAB stud code
An identification number composed of a one-or two-digit prefix indicating the AI stud and a letter indicating the breed of the male specie. The remaining numbers identify the male within a stud.
NDF
See neutral detergent fiber.
NFE
See nitrogen-free extract.
National Association of Animal Breeders (NAAB)
The national organization made up of representatives from the artificial insemination (AI) industry.
National Research Council (NRC)
A division of the National Academy of Sciences established in 1916 to promote the effective use of scientific and technical resources. This private, nonprofit organization of scientists publishes bulletins periodically giving nutrient requirements of domestic animals.
Natural service
In farm animals, it means to allow natural mating, as opposed to artificial insemination.
Near Side
The horse's left-hand side, from which it is usually mounted.
Neonatal
Pertaining to a newborn animal.
Net energy (NE)
The difference between metabolizable energy and heat increment. It includes the amount of energy used either for maintenance only or for maintenance plus production.
Neutral detergent fiber (NDF)
A measurement of fiber after digesting in a non-acidic, non-alkaline detergent as an aid in determining quality of forages. Contains the fibers in ADF, plus hemicellulose.
Nitrate
A final decomposition product of organic nitrogen compounds. A nitrogen-oxygen ion (NO3-) available as a plant nutrient and soluble in water.
Nitrification
The biochemical transformation by oxidation of ammonium (NH4) to nitrite (NO2) or to nitrate (NO3).
Nitrogen balance
Nitrogen in the food consumed minus nitrogen in feces and nitrogen in urine (nitrogen retention).
Nitrogen-free extract (NFE)
Consisting of carbohydrates, sugars, starches, and a major portion of materials classed as hemicellulose in feeds. When crude protein, fat, water, ash, and fiber are added and the sum is subtracted from 100, the difference is NFE.
Non-point source
Entry of effluent into a water body in a diffuse manner so there is no definite point of entry.
Noseband
The part of a bridle which lies across the horse's nose, above the bit.
Odds
The betting quotation on a horse in a race.
Oestrus
See estrus.
Off feed
Having ceased eating; without a healthy and normal appetite.
Off Side
A horse's right-hand side.
On Its Toes
Refers to a horse which is eager to keep moving.
Open
A term commonly used for nonpregnant farm mammals.
Organic nitrogen
Nitrogen bound in organic compounds, such as protein or amino acids. Requires microbial decomposition prior to nitification as a plant nutrient.
Outcross
Mating an individual to another in the same breed who is not closely related to it.
Out of
Terminology for mothered by in animal breeding.
Ovariectomy
The surgical removal of an ovary.
Overconditioned
An animal with excess flesh and patchy fat deposits, especially over the shoulders, back, hips, and thighs.
Pacemaker
A horse that takes the lead and sets the speed for a race.
Paddock
1) a grassy enclosure in which horses can be turned out.
2) the enclosure at a racetrack in which horses are prepared for a race.
Parakeratosis
Any abnormality of the stratum corneum (horny layer of epidermis) of skin, especially a condition caused by edema between the cells, which prevents the formation of keratin.
Parenteral
Administration by injection, not through the digestive tract (e.g., subcutaneous, intramuscular, intrasternal, intravenous).
Parimutual
A form of betting in which the total amount wagered, after a percentage is deducted for costs, is divided among the holders of winning tickets.
Parity price
A level of farm prices intended to provide the same approximate purchasing power for farmers as enjoyed during a preceding base period.
Parrot mouth
A malformed mouth of an animal in which the upper jaw abnormally protrudes beyond the lower.
Parturition
The act or process of giving birth to young.
Pasture
Plants, as grass, grown for feeding or grazing animals. Also to feed cattle and other livestock on pasture.
Pathogen
Any microorganism that produces disease (bacteria, viruses, yeasts, molds, and parasites).
Pediculicide
An agent that destroys lice.
Pedigree
A record of an animal's ancestors, usually only those of the five closest generations.
Pendulous udders
Loosely attached mammary glands are collectively referred to as pendulous udders.
Perfecta
See Exacta.
Permanent identification
Identification that stays with the animal for its lifetime and cannot be lost. Examples are tatoo, color markings (sketch or photo) and hot or freeze brand. (Also see unique identification.)
pH
A logarithmic measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution using the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 with numbers above 7 being alkaline and numbers below 7, acidic. A one number change means the solution is ten times weaker or stronger than the previous measure.
Phenotype
The expression of genes that can be measured by our senses--what we physically see of some trait in an animal.
Phosphate
An ion of phosphorus and oxygen (H2PO4- or HPO4-2). May exist as an ion in solution or as an ester or salt of phosphoric acid.
Pica
A craving for unnatural articles of food such as is observed in phosphorus-deficient animals; a depraved appetite.
Pink eye (conjunctivitis)
An inflammatory disease of the eye of cattle of all ages. The eye may become pearl colored and opaque leading to blindness.
Pipeline
A stainless steel or glass pipe used for transporting milk by gravity to storage. May be above the milking units (high line) or below the level of the units (low line).
Place
To finish second in a horserace.
Placenta
The tissue attachment between the fetus and the mother.
Plain
A term suggesting general inferiority; coarse; lacking the desired quality or breed character.
Plasma
The liquid portion of blood or lymph in which corpuscles or blood cells float.
Polled
Describing a naturally hornless animal.
Polygastric
Possessing more than one stomach compartment, as does the cow and other ruminants.
Pony
Any horse less that 14.2 hands (58 inches) when fully grown.
Post
1) either the starting or finishing post at a racetrack. 2) to rise up from the saddle while a horse is trotting.
Post-legged
A condition in which the hind legs are too straight, so that the springy quality of the hock and pastern is lost.
Postpartum
Occurring after birth of the offspring.
Potash
An oxide of potassium (K2O) used as a plant nutrient or fertilizer.
Ppb
Parts per billion. It equals micrograms per kilogram or microliters per liter.
Ppm
Parts per million. It equals milligrams per kilogram or milliliters per liter.
Predicted Transmitting Ability (PTA)
An estimation of an animal's potential to transmit yield productivity to its offspring based on pedigree information and the animal's performance, if available.
Prepartum
Occurring before birth of the offspring.
Prepotent
Designating an animal that transmits its own character to its progeny to a marked or highly uniform degree.
Prepping
Preparing a horse for a sale, race, shows, etc.
Primary waste treatment
Usually, the initial treatment of waste water to reduce pollution potential or health hazard. With animal manure an example would be liquid-solid separation.
Produce
female's offspring. The produce of dam commonly refers to two offspring of one dam.
Production and type index (PTI)
Combines genetic merit measurements for production and type in a ratio thus ranking sires on their ability to transmit a balance of these traits.
Progeny testing
Evaluating the genotype of an individual by a study of its offspring. An evaluation of the transmitting ability of an individual based on the performance of offspring.
Prolapsed uterus
A condition in which the uterus is partially or completely turned inside out, outside the animal's body, usually following parturition.
Protein equivalent
A term indicating the total nitrogen content of a substance in comparison with the nitrogen content of protein usually plant). For example, the nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) compound, urea, contains approximately 45 percent nitrogen and has a protein equivalent of 281 percent (6.25 x 45 percent).
Protein supplements
Feed products that contain 20 percent or more of protein.
Proximate analysis
Tests for nitrogen (crude protein), crude fiber, ether extract (lipids), and ash which, with nitrogen-free extract, represent the gross composition of feed.
Psychrophilic
Cold-loving. It refers to microorganisms that grow best at refrigerated temperatures, that is, 4 to 15øC.
Psychrotrophic
Cold-tolerant. It refers to microorganisms that grow at low temperatures, 4 to 15øC., but may have an optimum temperature above this range.
PTA
See predicted transmitting ability.
PTI
See production and type index.
Purebred
The offspring of purebred parents of the same breed. Ancestors of purebreds can be traced to foundation stock in the original herdbook. An animal with two registered parents of the same breed. Purebreds are not all registered.
Pus
A liquid product of inflammation consisting of leukocytes, lymph, bacteria, deadtissue cells, and fluid derived from their decomposition.
Pyometra
An accumulation of pus in the uterus.
Quarters
The hindquarters: the area of a horse's body extending from the rear of the flank to the root of the tail and downwards to the tops of the hind legs.
Quinella
A type of bet in which the wagerer must choose the first and second place winners but need not designate the order in which they finish in order to win.
Racing Plate
A thin, lightweight horseshoe used for racing.
Rate of passage
The time taken by undigested residues from a given meal to reach the feces.
Ration
The food allowed an animal for 24 hours. See balanced ration.
Recalcitrant
In plant nutrition, refers to that portion of a nutrient in the soil that is unavailable for biochemical activity or plant uptake.
Recessive
See dominant.
Red Ribbon
A piece of red ribbon tied around a horse's tail to indicate that it is known to kick.
Refusal
The failure of a horse to try to jump an obstacle, either by stopping in front of it or by going around it.
Registered
Purebred animal registered in the herdbook of the proper breed association. Certain associations (for example, the Red and White association) will register non- purebred cattle providing they satisfy certain other criteria.
Registration certificate
Proof that the parentage of an animal is known and is recorded in the Breed Registry Herdbook.
Regurgitate
To cast up undigested food from the stomach to the mouth, as done by ruminants.
Rein Back
To make a horse step backward while being ridden.
Reins
Long, narrow leather strips used to control the horse. One end is attached to the bit; the other end is held by the rider.
Resistance
The act of refusing to go forward, stop, run back, or rear.
Retained placenta
Placental membranes not expelled normally at parturition.
Ride
To be transported in a mounted position, as one horse mounted on another during estrus.
Ringer
A horse entered in a race under the name of another, to win bets illegally by making betters and bookmakers believe they are betting on an inferior horse.
Roughage
Consists of pasture, silage, hay, or other dry fodder. It may be of high or low quality. Roughages are usually high in crude fiber (more than 18 percent) and relatively low in NFE (approximately 40 percent).
Rugged
When referring to an animal, it means large and strong.
Run on
To graze or pasture on, as for horses to run on the range.
Run out
To avoid an obstacle which is to be jumped by running around it or to pass on the wrong side of a marker flag.
Runoff
The portion of rainfall or irrigation water draining from fields into surface streams or bodies of water. May carry pollutants from field surfaces.
Sanitize
To kill or remove injurious microorganisms but not necessarily to sterilize. Dairy equipment for example is commonly sanitized with heat or chemicals.
Scale
The overall size of an animal.
School
1) to train a horse for a specific purpose.
2) an enclosed area, either open or covered, in which a horse may be trained.
Scours
A persistent diarrhea in animals.
Scratch
1) to withdraw a horse from an equestrian event after is has been officially entered.
2) to spur a horse vigorously.
Scrub
An animal from nonpurebred parents not showing the predominant characteristics of any breed.
Secondary waste treatment
Usually, a second treatment of waste water to reduce pollution potential or health hazard. With animal manure an example would be storage in an anaerobic treatment lagoon and sprinkler field application.
Selection
The causing or allowing of certain individuals in a population to produce the next generation. Artificial selection is that practiced by man; natural selection is that practiced by nature.
Selection intensity
The margin of true genetic superiority of those animals selected in comparison to all those from which the choices were made.
Self-feeder
A feeding system that allows animals to eat at will. See ad libitum.
Septicemia
The presence of microorganisms and their associated poisons in blood (commonly called blood poisoning). If the microorganisms are bacteria, the condition is bacteremia.
Serotype
The type of microorganism as determined by the kind and combination of constituent antigens associated with the cell.
Service
A term commonly used in animal breeding, denoting the mating of male to female. Also called serving or covering.
Service sire
The sire to which a female currently is bred.
Settled
A term commonly used to indicate that an animal has become pregnant.
Settling basin
Any area that reduces flow velocity and allows particulates to settle from a liquid suspension. With manure suspensions, usually built to allow solids removal on a regular basis.
Shelf life
The time after processing during which a product remains suitable for human consumption, especially the time a food remains palatable.
Shoes
Metal plates that fit around the outer edges of the hooves to protect them from injury and wear.
Show
To finish third in a horserace.
Shy
For a horse to swerve away suddenly because of a sound or obstacle.
Shy breeder
A male or female of any domesticated livestock that has a low reproductive efficiency.
Sib (sibling)
In genetics, a brother or sister.
Sickle-hocked
Describes an animal having a crooked hock, which causes the lower part of the leg to be bent forward out of a normal perpendicular straight line.
Silage (ensilage)
Green forage, such as grass or clover, or fodder, such as field corn or sorghum, that is chopped into a silo, where it is packed or compressed to exclude air and undergoes an acid fermentation (lactic and acetic acids) that retards spoilage.
Silks
The cap and blouse worn by a racing jockey which carry the owner's colors.
Silo
A vertical cylindrical structure, pit, trench, or other relatively airtight chamber in which chopped green crops, such as corn, grass, legumes, or small grain and other livestock feeds are fermented and stored. See silage.
Sire
The male parent. The verb means to father or beget.
Sire selection
Process of identifying males to be used as service sires with the goal of increasing the genetic potential of the herd.
Sketch (photo)
A method of permanent identification to be cross-referenced with visible identification.
Slip
To abort.
Snaffle Bit
The oldest type of bit, consisting of a straight or jointed bit with a ring at each end to which the reins are attached.
Soilage
Freshly cut green forage often fed to animals in drylot. Also called green chop.
Solvent-extracted
Fat or oil removed from materials (such as soybean seeds) by organic solvents.
Sound
Referring to a horse which is free from any illness, disease, blemish, imperfection, or defect (particularly of the legs) which make it unable to function properly.
Spayed
To have surgically removed the ovaries of a female.
Sphincter
A ring-shaped muscle that closes an opening, such as the sphincter muscles in the lower end of a cow's teat.
Sprinter
A horse which is able to cover short distances at great speed. Sprinters are rarely able to maintain a fast pace over long distances.
Stallion
An ungelded male horse more than four years old.
Stanchion
A specially designed headgate to hold an animal in place while allowing feeding and resting.
Statistically significant
It usually refers in research to tests for differences resulting from treatments. The reliability of such differences is expressed as degree of probability or the percentage of time an observation would be expected to fall outside a certain range of variation from normal observation.
Stayer
A horse which is able to cover long distances because of its strength, stamina, and endurance power.
Sterilize
To remove or kill all living organisms. Also, to make barren or unproductive, as a vasectomy in stallions.
Steward
An official who sees that rules are obeyed at a race or show.
Stillborn
Born lifeless; dead at birth.
Stover
Fodder; mature cured stalks of grain from which seeds have been removed, such as stalks of corn without ears.
Strangles
An infectious disease which is common among young horses. Symptoms include a high temperature, a thick nasal discharge, and swelling of the lymph glands.
Streak canal
See teat meatus.
String
A group of animals within a larger group, or herd.
Stud
1) a place where breeding horses, especially stallions, are kept. 2) (slang) a stallion.
Subclinical
A disease condition without clinical manifestations.
Subcutaneous
Situated or occurring beneath the skin.
Succulence
A condition of plants characterized by juiciness, freshness, and tenderness, making them appetizing to animals.
Suckling
A foal which is nursing.
Supplement
To add minerals, vitamins, or other minor ingredients (volumewise) to a ration.
Surcingle
A webbing belt used to keep the saddle in position which passes over the saddle and girth.
TDN
See total digestible nutrients.
TMR
Total mixed ration. See complete ration.
Tack
Riding gear, such as the saddle and bridle.
Take
To accept a male in coitus. Also a lay term meaning to become pregnant.
Tanbark trail
A term often associated with those who exhibit animals in competition at fairs and livestock shows.
Tattoo
A method of permanent identification to be cross- referenced with visible identification. Permanent ink used with tattoo numbers creates a lifetime record of identification in the ears of livestock.
Teat
A small protuberance or appendage on the udder, through which milk from the udder flows.
Teat meatus
Small canal located in the end of each teat; also called a streak canal.
Temperature
A horse's normal temperature is 100.5F(38C).
Term
The gestation period.
Tertiary waste treatment
Usually, the final treatment of waste water to reduce pollution potential or health hazard allowing discharge into bodies of water. Not economically practical with animal manure waste waters.
Tetany
A condition in an animal in which there are localized, spasmodic muscular contractions.
Tether
To tie an animal with a rope or chain to allow grazing but prevent straying.
Thrush (foot rot)
Inflammation of the frog of a horse's hoof, characterized by a foul-smelling discharge.
Titer
The quantity of a substance required to produce a reaction with a given volume of another substance, or the amount of one substance required to correspond with a given amount of another substance. Agglutination titer is the highest dilution of a serum that causes clumping of bacteria.
Toe out
To walk with the feet pointed outward. Also called splay-footed.
Total digestible nutrients (TDN)
A standard evaluation of the nutritional merit of a particular feed for farm animals which includes all the digestible organic nutrients-- protein, fiber, nitrogen-free extract, and lipids.
Toxins
The poisons produced by certain microorganisms. They are products of cell metabolism. The symptoms of bacterial diseases, such as diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and staphylococcal food poisoning, are caused by toxins.
Toxoid
A denatured toxin. It retains the ability to stimulate the formation of antitoxin in an animal's body.
Trade barriers
Rules and regulations that hamper the trade of commodities. Tariffs, fees for imported goods and import limits or quotas are barriers to trade.
Trifecta
A type of bet in which the wagerer must choose the first, second, and third place winners and the order in which they finish in order to win.
Turf
A course over which a horse race is held, especially a grass course.
Turn On The Forehand
A movement in which the horse pivots on the forelegs while performing concentric circles with the hind legs.
Turn On The Quarters
A movement in which the horse pivots on the hind legs while performing concentric circles with the forelegs.
Type
The physical conformation of an animal.
Type classification
A program sponsored by breed associations whereby a registered animal's conformation may be compared with the "ideal" or "true" type animal of that breed by an official inspector (classifier).
UIP
Undegraded intake protein. The portion of intake protein escaping breakdown by rumen microorganisms.
USDA
United States Department of Agriculture. The branch of the Federal government that is administered by the Secretary of Agriculture appointed by the President of the United States.
USP
United States Pharmacopeia. A unit of measurement or potency of biologicals that usually coincides with an international unit. See IU.
Udder
The encased group of mammary glands provided with teats or nipples, as in a cow, ewe, mare, or sow. Also called bag.
Ungulate
Referring to a hoofed four-legged animal, as a horse.
Unique identification
A series of nonduplicating numbers such as registration, uniform series eartag or VIP number. These numbers are cross-referenced with permanent identification for registered, VIP and other recorded nonregistered animals. (Also see visible identification.)
Unsaturated fat
A fat having one or more double bonds, not completely hydrogenated.
Unsound
Referring to a horse with a defect (especially of the legs) which makes it unable to function properly.
Unthriftiness
Lack of vigor, poor growth or development; the quality or state of being unthrifty in animals.
Urea
A nonprotein organic nitrogenous compound (NH2CONH2). It is made synthetically by combining ammonia
and carbon dioxide.
VFA (volatile fatty acids)
Commonly used in reference to acetic, propionic, and butyric acids produced in the rumen of cattle, goats, and sheep, in the cecum of sheep, the cecum and colon of swine, the colon of the horse, and the cecum of the rabbit.
Vaccination
The process of artificially stimulating the immune response in an animal to an altered biological material resulting in resistance to an infectious disease.
Virulence
The degree of pathogenicity (ability of produce disease) of a microorganism as indicated by case fatality rates and/or its ability to invade the tissues of a host.
Visera
The internal organs of the body.
Visible identification
A readily visible, numbering system attached to the animal that is used to identify the animal easily on test day.
Volatilization
The loss of gaseous materials, such as ammonia nitrogen, from animal manures to the atmosphere.
Warm-Blood
A horse whose ancestors include both "cold-bloods" and "hot-bloods".
Weanling
A foal which has been weaned.
Well Turned-out
Referring to a horse/rider team which is well-groomed, well-dressed, etc. in competitions in which appearance is considered in judging.
Win
To finish first in a horserace.
Windgall
The puffy swelling of a horse's knee or fetlock joints, caused by an oversecretion of the fluid in the joints.
Windsucking
A harmful habit in which a horse sucks in and swallows air, causing indigestion.
Wing shoulder
A condition in which the shoulder joint is away from the rib structure and skeleton (much of the skin is tucked in behind it).
Work of digestion
See heat increment.
Wry tail
Tailhead set either to the right or left of center.
Yearling
A horse between one and two years old. All foals born in a given year turn yearlings on the 1st of January (the universal birth date) following the date they were foaled.

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